Yerly Magnolia Useche SalvadorOswaldo Cruz Institute, Brazil
Title: Purinergic System in Immune Response
In mammalian cells, purinergic signaling and inflammatory mediators regulate each other. When either microbial infection, stress, or injury causes cellular imbalance, several nucleotides and nucleosides are released from either pathogen or dying host cells. Then, purinergic receptors such as PX and PY trigger purinergic pathways and proinflammatory responses. These functions include activation of inflammasomes and immune cells, apoptosis, and production of oxidants, controlling the infection of various pathogens. In addition, the purinergic system can regulate exacerbated inflammation through adenosine receptors. However, uncontrolled inflammation can lead to fibrosis and organ dysfunction. The effects triggered by agonists of purinergic receptors in altered cells depend on the expressing receptor's capacity, the mechanisms to maintain the balancing of nucleotide and nucleoside concentrations in the extracellular medium, and the survival strategies of specific pathogens. Therefore, the magnitude of resultant responses may contribute either to the homeostatic elimination of pathogens or to the severe progression of infectious diseases and organ dysfunction.
A few drugs based on purinergic receptor agonists have been tested as antiplatelets in humans. Specially, they were applied in acute coronary disease and after coronary interventions. Moreover, the effect of exercise training, obesity, and populational genetic variability on drug performance have been explored. Because purinergic signaling can modulate different intracellular infections and mediates inflammatory process in cardiovascular diseases, this field represents an important focus for future research regarding the homeostasis maintenance as a preventive and therapeutic strategy.
Yerly Useche has completed his PHD from University of Antioquia, Colombia. She is a Postdoctoral research of Sergio Arouca National School of Public Health. She has publications in human genetic diversity and purinergic system involvement in infectious diseases.